Liver Fluke secretions suppress Experimental Autoimmune Encephalitis in mice

These effects are Treg and IL-4 independent, and are instead dependant on the helminth specific Th2-mediated Eosinophilia in which IL-5 and IL-33 cytokines are crucial.

“Helminth Products Protect against Autoimmunity via Innate Type 2 Cytokines IL-5 and IL-33, Which Promote Eosinophilia.”   Conor M Finlay, Kingston H.G. Mills, et al. (Dec 2016) J Immunol 196(2): 703-714.    PMID: 26673140.